The History to photographies begin be developed in recently only preteen models , basically at postwar years. In miscellaneous country exactly in this time started to leave the books, denoted both domestic photography, and foreign photographic school. For a long time right did not confess for photography on aesthetic creative activity. The Artists and past age considered as mechanical copy to reality, capable to be realy that surrogate painting. To although somehow heartlessness of the technical facility , many photographers past spent much power and imaginations, creating picture inadequate fixed to nature. They broadly used the montage and seal with several negatives, practiced withcraft with hand in hand on decorating of the imprint, wrote and put, like theatrical stage manager, scene on mythological plots.
1. Notion to photographies
Fotografiya (fr. photographie from dr.-grech. / light and write; technology of the drawing by light) reception and conservation scenes on photosensitive material (the Q or photographic matrix) with the help of .
Also photography or photogaph, or simply picture name the final scene, got as a result of photographic process and considered person directly (there is in view of as frame shown film, so and scene in electronic or printed type). The Photography (from greek photo light, earl rice, write) drawing by light, was open not immediately and not one person. Labour scientist many generations of the different countries of the world is embedded In this invention.
The People long ago tried to find the way of the reception of the scenes, which did not require long and exhasting labour of the artist.
Depending on principle of the functioning(working) the photosensitive material photography is accepted divide in three greater subsections:
The Film photography is founded on , in which occur the processes.
The Digital photography in process of the reception and conservations of the scene occur displacement electric charge (as a result of photoeffect usually and under the further processing), but does not occur the chemical reaction or displacement material. Pravilinee was name such photography electronic, since in row device, traditionally referred to digital , occur analog processes (such a the most first camera with electronic matrix Sony Mavica, such a many cheap television cameras of the systems )
Elektrograficheskie and other processes, in which does not occur the chemical reaction, but occurs carrying a material, forming scene. The Special general name for this section is not worked out, before appearance of the digital photography often was used the term photography .
Also are used the following firm word-combinations:
Galogenoserebryanaya photography for of the photographic process.
Besserebryanaya photography for all rest photographic processes.
The Analog photography as the synonym to film photography, in contraposition digital.
Analog seal, optical seal reception photogaph by way of the optical increase with negative or use the special projector (for optical seal digital photography), in contraposition digital method seal.
2. Types to photographies
The Monochrome photography historically first type to photographies. After appearance colour, but then and digital photography, monochrome picture has saved its popularity. Zachastuyu colour photographies are converted in monochrome for reception of the artistic effect. Colour photography
The Early colour photography was in 1912. The Colour photography came up for medium XIX age. The First firm colour photogaph was made in 1861 James Maksvellom on method of the three-colored photography (the method ).
For reception of the colour picture on this were used three with installed on them colour (red, green and blue). The Got picture allowed to reconstruct at projections (but later, and in seal) colour scene.
Alongside with method with begin XX age become actively develop and the other processes (the methods) to colour photography. In particular, in 1907 were patented and have entered in free sale Avtohrom Brother Lyumier, allowing comparatively easy get the colour photographies. In spite of multiple defect (quick paints, frailty of the plates, scenes), method has quickly conquered popularity and before 1935 50 plate was made in the world.
The Alternatives to this technologies appeared only in 1930-h year: Agfacolor in 1932, Kodachrome in 1935, Polaroid in 1963.
The Digital photography comparatively making look younger, but popular technology, arisen in 1981, when company Sony has released on the market camera Sony Mavica with PZS-Matrix, writing picture on disk. This device was not digital in modern understanding (on disk was written analog signal), however allowed to abandon to Q. The First full-fledged digital camera DCS 100 was released in 1990 company Kodak.
The Principle of the functioning(working) the digital camera is concluded in of the light flow by matrix and transformations to this information in digital form.
At present digital photography around the world displaces film in majority of the branches.
3. Genres to photographies
In XX age, when technology to photographies it is enough was improved, appeared it is enough sensitive photographic material and suitable , photography changed from technical funny thing in one of the types .
The Special place and importance of the photography in artistic culture is connected with technical, scientific essence to photographies. The most Most important characteristic to photographies is her(its) validity, authenticity Q event. Simultaneously with this, scene, either as in painting or drawing, carries in itself artistic generalization, opening the internal sense shown to situations, nature of the expressed person and a great deal another.
On essences its, the photographer is an artist, disposing determined paint and .
The Photographer uses the of the facility to photographies (the point removal, forshortening, linear composition, plan, prospect, illumination), related facility painting. The Additional instrument is a chemist-photographic processing.
4. History to photographies
Chemical photographies begins in deep antiquity. The People always knew that from solar gets dark the human skin, scintillate the opals and amethysts, spoils the taste a beer. The Optical history to photographies counts approximately thousand of years. The most first camera- possible name room, a part which sunlit . The Arabic mathematician and scientist X age Aligazen from Basry, which wrote about the cardinal principles optometrists and studied the behaviour of the light, has noticed the natural phenomenon of the crossover scene. He saw this crossover scene on white wall of the obscured rooms or tents, put(deliver)ed on solar coast of the Persian bay, scene got through small round hole in wall, in open valance of the tent or drapeses. Aligazen used the camera- for observations for eclipses sun, knowing that is harmed to look at sun by naked eyes.
The First persons, who has proved;proven that light, rather then heat does the silver salt dark, was Iogann Geynrih SHulice (1687 1744), physicist, professor of the Gallic university in Germany. In 1725, trying prepare the luminous material, he has accidentally disturbed the chalk with nitric acid, in which was kept little dissolved silver. He has pointed to the fact, when sunshine got on turn white mixture, that she became dark while mixture, protected from solar , absolutely did not change. Then he has conducted several experiments with letter and figure, which sliced from paper and superimposed on bottle with prepared by solution, were got photographic imprint on silverred chalk. The Professor SHulice has published got given in 1727, but beside it was not and thoughts to try to do the founded similar image of the scene constant. He the solution in bottle, and scene disappeared. This experiment, however, gave the push to whole series of the observations, opening and inventions in chemistries, which after a little more centuries have brought about invention of the photographies preteens .
Working most often for periodic publishing, photographers in their own picture quite often touched to sick problem society, showing social inequality, poverty, usage of the baby labour and t. d. Pleasing to note that that, the little that was in histories of the photographies, turned out to be is noticed and stood on pages of the site. In this, suppose, one of the most important his(its) value, capable to attract the rapt attention of the visitor.
For many photographer, strove;strived to confirm its statute an artist, as well as for critic, theorist, historian (both that times, and present) spreading became the clear indication of that sphere creative activity, which they considered straight opposite aesthetic principle to photographies. Such terms, as documentary and artistic photography, broadly came in our everyday life, are indicative of fission on two spheres, from which only one, the second, has aesthetic importance.
Gradually, however, all and broader became to spread the thought, according to which if such can exist, must appear not on fetter of the following example painting, but on own base. On base inimitable, only her, photographies, inherent creative abilities. And here again gave itself to know the characteristic of the camera life in her(its) documentary-authentic form. Became obvious that that language, which so well uses , and there is specific for of the photographies, including pretending on aesthetic confession.
Such is a resolute tumbling in beliefs about has forced the historian to photographies to revise the notions preteen pics about formation of the new type creative activity, newly value the role separate photographer, revise the list of the names that master, about which possible speak as about artist . Now in history of the photographies as persona to paramount importance entered that, who else yesterday considered to be distant from aesthetic creative activity journalist.
With immemorial timeses, for instance, was noticed that ray sun, penetrating VWXbe drafty small hole in dark premises, leaves on planes light drawing subject of the external world. The Subjects are expressed in exact proportion and colour, but in reduced, in contrast with nature, size and in crossover type. This characteristic of the dark room (or cameras-) was known else thinker Aristotelyu, in IV age before our era. The Principle of the functioning(working) the camera- has described in their own works Leonardo yes Vinchi.
The Known that as far back as XIII age were an invented spectacles. Ochkovoe glass has in visual pipe Galileo Galileya then pre teen models . In Russia great scientist M.V. Lomonosov initiated the development an pipes and optical instrument.
Came time, when camera- started to name the box with by lens in front wall and translucent paper or frosted glasses in back wall. Such instrument safely served for mechanical subject external world. The Crossover scene it is enough was by means of mirrors to put(deliver) straight and dribble the pencil on sheet of paper.
In medium XVIII age in Russia, for instance, had a spreading camera-, carried name large cumbersome object for , made in the manner of field tent. With her(its) help were documentary types Petersburg, Petergofa, Krondshtata and other russian city.
One of the the most important contribution to making the real conditions for invention of the way of the conversion of the optical scene in chemical process in photosensitive layer has served the opening of the young russian chemist-amateur, subsequently known statesman and diplomat, A.P. BESTUZHEVA-Ryumina (1693 - 1766) and german anatomist and surgeon I.G. SHulice (1687 - 1744). Concerning with in 1725 sheduling the fluid medical mixtures, Bestuzhev-Ryumin has found that under influence of the sunshine solutions salts ferric change the colour. In two years SHulice also has afforded proofs sensitivity to light of the salts of the bromine.
The Goal-directed work on chemical fastening the light scene in camera- scientist and inventors of the different countries have begun in the first one third XIX age only. The Best result obtained now known whole world frenchmans ZHozef Nisefor Nieps (1765 - 1833), Lui-ZHak Cunt Dager (1787 - 1851) and englishman William Fox Henry Talibot (1800 - 1877). Their is accepted to consider the inventor to photographies.
Though attempts of the reception of the photographic scene were conducted as far back as 17 ages, year of the invention to photographies is considered 1839, when in Paris appeared so named . On base of their own own studies and experience Nisefora Niepsa, french inventor Lui Dageru to manage to take pictures the person and get firm . In contrast with more early experience time to exposures grew shorter (less 1 mines). The Principle difference from modern photography reception of the positive, rather then negative that did the impossible a reception mines.
The First bolted scene was made in 1822 frenchman ZHozefom Niseforom Niepsom (Nicephore Niepce), but it did not before our days. So the first photography in histories is considered picture view from window , received Niepsom in 1826 by means of cameras- on tinny plate, coated fine the asphalt. The Exposure lasted eight hours under bright sunshines. Dignity of the method Niepsa was that scene was got raised (after asphalt), and his(its) easy possible was duplicate in any count;calculate;list copy.
In 1839 frenchman Lui-ZHak Cunt Dager (Jacques Daguerre) has published the way of the reception of the scene on copper plate, coated by silver. After Dager carry plate in get dark room and some time kept her(it) on vapour(pair) of the heated quicksilver. As fixing agent of the scene Dager used the cookery salt. The Picture was got rather high quality well studied carefully detail both in svetah, and in shade, however, copying of the picture was impossible. Its way of the reception of the photographic scene Dager has named .
Soon scientist, artists and amateurs have perfected the process Dagera. They have shortened time to exposures before several minutes. Using the prism enabled to do the scene on not mirror, but normal. Dagerotipy sent the most small details removed object. To 1841 was created camera of the smaller size, but her(its) weight decreased in 10 once. There were are created facility, prevented surface from damages and scratches.
The Glory and confession Dagera grew on measure that, what his(its) way receptions of the scenes on the world spread. But after publishing given about its process he already not contribute;cause nothing fresh in photography. Before its death in 1851 he veins in solitude from Paris not far.
Practically at the same time englishman Uiliyam Henry Fox Talibot Q way receptions of the negative photographic scene, which has named the . As carrier of the scene Talibot used the paper, imbrued by silver. This technology connected in itself high quality and possibility of copying picture (the positives haved something published on similar paper). The Exposure lasted about hour, on picture lattice window of the building Talibota.
Besides, in 1833 method of the reception to photographies at nitrate silver has published the franc-brazilian inventor and artist Erkyuli Florans. Its method he not and hereinafter did not pretend on championship.
Term photography Itself came up for 1839, his(its) used simultaneously and independently two astronomers english, Uiliyam Gersheli, and german, Iogann background Medler.
5. Development to photographies
The Significant contribution to achievement have contributed such scientist, as frenchmans A. Fizo, A. Klode, hungarian Y. Petcvali, russian A. Greek, american S. Morze and many, many others.
The Period has existed little. The Scene on silver plate cost much, was mirror turned, was made in one copy, consider him(it) because of briliance was extremely difficult.
Kalotipnyy way possessed greater value so he and has got the most further development. Already at the end 40-h years XIX age family inventor Niepsov Nieps de Network-Viktor - has changed in this way negative substrate from paper by glass, covered the starched paste or egg squirrel. The Layer to light salt silver.
In 1851 englishman S. Archer has covered glass an . The Positives started to print on to paper. The Photographies possible was duplicate.
Else through two with small decennial event Richard Meddoks has offered the removal on dry plate. Such improvement has took photographs related modern.
In 1873 Fogeli has made the of the plate. Later, the lenses- were constructed. In 1889 D. Istmen (the founder of the company "Kodak") has adjusted the production celluloid film. The first plates appeared In 1904 for colour photography, released by company "Lyumier".
The Photography of our days this and area of the science about her most and area of the technology, this methods of the study and documentation, this artistic vocation of the people, this and different types to applied activity.
The Reception of the movinging scenes, founded on photographic principle, is identified the cinematography.
The Photography is founded on achievements of the science in the field of optometrists first of all, mechanical engineers and chemistries. The Development on present stage of the digital photography occurs due to basically electronic and information technology.
6. Principle of the action to photographies
The Principle of the action to photographies is founded on reception of the scenes and fixing them by means of chemical and physical processes, got by means of light that is to say electromagnetic waves, radiated directly or reflected.
The Scenes by means of reflected from subject of the visible light got as far back as deep antiquity and used for picturesque and technical work. The Method named later photography, does not require the serious optical adjustments. In that timeses were used only small holes and, sometimes, slots. The scenes were Designed preteen models on opposite from these hole of the surfaces. Hereinafter method was advanced by means of optical instrument, placed on place of the hole. This has served the central to making the camera, limiting got scene from not carrying scene by light. The Camera was named , scene on her(its) back dull wall and was drawn again on sidebar by artist. After invention of the methods chemical scenes, the camera- became the constructive prototype of the photographic device. The Name photography was chose as the most euphonious from several variants in French academy in 1839.
Studiynoe illumination. At are used special , which on order joined to hot shoe. Exists two types illuminations: pulsed illumination and constant.
Stands are used for prevention under insufficient luminosity, removal , under greater endurance, for installing the additional lighting equipment, for frequentative removal on one frame and t. d.
Svetofilitry are used for compensation color (conversion) and spatial (the ) defect illuminations, receptions special effect.
At present no such areas to human activity wherever was not used or could not be successfully aplying photography. This naturally since with photography in that or other her(its) type constantly happens to to have a deal many million people most miscellaneous profession.
Finally, photography presents itself one of the the most wide-spread type graphic arts and as any art rests the different technical facilities in using. Possible say that nor one graphic arts disposes such broad arsenal of the technical facilities and does not require such extensive technical knowledges from artist as photography.